The human body has an endogenous system of regeneration and repair by means of stem cells (Figure 1 ((3)), where they can be found in almost all tissues. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells characterized by multipotential differentiation and self-renewal. Self-renewal of stem cells is the consequence of cell division occurring within the microenvironment in which the stem cells (niche) reside. Inside the niche the number of stem cells is kept constant by balancing dormant and activated cells. The division of stem cells could result in a daughter stem cell and a progenitor daughter (asymmetric division), or in two daughters of stem cells (symmetric division) (4). This renewal mechanism was highly developed across evolution, and has granted humans the ability to regenerate cells and grow, restore cellular function, and replace damaged cells. Stem cells hold great promise for translational medicine's future (5).